Congestive Heart Failure (Part 3. Management)


Following 4 phases of heart failure must be in your mind when managing heart failure patients. Chronic┬áheart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Advanced heart failure. General principles of treatment for heart failure Relieve symptoms. Improve functional status. Prevent (re)hospitalization. Prevent┬ádeath.   General … Continue reading Congestive Heart Failure (Part 3. Management)

Pulmonary Circuit


Properties of Pulmonary Circuit The heart pumps a volume of blood into the lungs which after getting oxygenated is transported back to heart. This oxygenated blood is then pumped out of the heart and into the aorta and subsequently into the systemic circulation. As a consequence, at any given time the lungs (pulmonary vasculature) contain … Continue reading Pulmonary Circuit

General Principles of Hemodynamics


Organization of Cardiovascular System The human heart has 4 chambers which are the two atria and the two ventricles. These 4 chambers are divided into 2 functional units referred to as the left heart and the right heart. These atria and ventricle are single functional unit, separated by the atrioventricular valves. These AV valves are … Continue reading General Principles of Hemodynamics

Blood Pressure Control By Baroreceptors


Mean Arterial Pressure The mean arterial pressure (MAP), also considered as the perfusion pressure, is taken as the pressure difference between the arteries and the veins. The regulation of blood pressure is done in order to maintain the MAP. The MAP dictates the amount of oxygen and nutrients that is supplied by the blood vessels … Continue reading Blood Pressure Control By Baroreceptors