General Principles of Hemodynamics


Organization of Cardiovascular System The human heart has 4 chambers which are the two atria and the two ventricles. These 4 chambers are divided into 2 functional units referred to as the left heart and the right heart. These atria and ventricle are single functional unit, separated by the atrioventricular valves. These AV valves are … Continue reading General Principles of Hemodynamics

Blood Pressure Control By Baroreceptors


Mean Arterial Pressure The mean arterial pressure (MAP), also considered as the perfusion pressure, is taken as the pressure difference between the arteries and the veins. The regulation of blood pressure is done in order to maintain the MAP. The MAP dictates the amount of oxygen and nutrients that is supplied by the blood vessels … Continue reading Blood Pressure Control By Baroreceptors

The Basics Of Chest X Ray Interpretation


Chest X Ray is probably the most common imaging test.  Few providers (including MDs) are comfortable interpreting their own films. Clinical decisions are too often made based on reports from non-clinicians. Having a systematic and repetitive approach is the key. By the end of this lecture, the learner will be able to: Develop an understanding … Continue reading The Basics Of Chest X Ray Interpretation

Development Of Heart Tubes


Cardiovascular system is the first organ system to start developing and reach a functional state; which is even before its own development is complete. Cardiovascular development occurs during the 3rd to 5th week of intra embryonic life. Up until the second week, diffusion is enough for embryo to receive the oxygen, nutrition and to get rid of the waste products. … Continue reading Development Of Heart Tubes