Confusion are always a part of medical student’s life. We are confused starting from the first day of medical school till the end of our degree and thereafter too. Confusion are more for a medical students during the time of examination and most, at the examination hall. I have listed few confusion that can help a medical student to gain confidence level while presenting the topic or answering the question.

Alport syndrome and Apert syndrome

Alport syndrome: X linked disorder, Type IV collagen defect.

Apert syndrome: Triad of craniosynostosis, mid face hypoplasia and Symmetrical syndactyly.

Acrophobia and Agoraphobia

Acrophobia: Fear of height.

Agoraphobia: Fear of public places.

Chancre and  Chancroid

Chancre is painless ulcer seen in Syphilis.

Chancroid is painful ulcer seen in H. ducreyi infection.

Note: Chancre is Short in length, seen in Syphilis. Chancroid is also known as soft chancre.

Proptosis and Ptosis

Proptosis: Anterior buldging of the eye ball.

Ptosis: Drooping of the upper eye lid.

Reet and Tourette syndrome

Reet syndrome: Post natal genetic neurological disorder affecting gray matter of the brain.

Tourette syndrome: Neuropsychiatric disorder, onset in childhood associated with tics.

Rosacea and Rosea

Chronic dermatological vascular disorder predominantly affecting face and is characterized by flushing, telangiectasia, papules and pustules.

Pityriasis rosea: Characterized by scaly herald patch in the trunk followed by pink body rash. Does not appear to be contagious.

Conns disease and Addison’s disease

Conns disease: Increased aldosterone release.

Addison’s disease: Decreased aldosterone and cortisol.

Diabetes Insipidus

Central Diabetes Insipidus related to damage hypothalamus and pituitary.

Nephrogenic diabetes Insipidus related to kidney (ADH produced but it’s action on kidney tubules is impaired).

Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia

Hyperkalemia: ECG, Tall tented T waves and small P waves.

Hypokalemia: ECG, Inverted T wave and presence of U wave.

Anisocytosis and Poikilocytosis

Anisocytosis: Abnormal sized RBCs.

Poikilocytosis: Abnormal shaped RBCs.

Have great time, until next 10 random confusions for medical students.

Dr Bivek Singh

Academic coordinator (MBBS)

Author “A journey into the human body”

Author “Pharmacology simplified”

Board of Directors (Medical Outreach Nepal, USA)