BUN:CR Ratio

BUN:CR Ratio

Disclaimer: This is not a prescription. Using medicines without the guidance of a licensed provider  can be lethal.   >20:1 prerenal.Example: dehydration 10-20:1 normal or postrenal.Example:kidney stones. <10:1 intrarenal. Example: A TN, glomerulonephritis....
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

Disclaimer: This is not a prescription. Using medicines without the guidance of a licensed provider  can be lethal.   The KDIGO guidelines  define AKI as follows: 1.  Increase in serum creatinine  by _>0.3 mg/dL  within 48 hours, or 2.  Increase in serum...

EXPLORING DIURETICS

Diuretics forms one of the base pillars in treating hypertension and edema. These groups of drugs increases  rate of urine flow. Based on their mechanism of action their efficacy varies. Before moving into diuretics I would recommend to revise renal physiology which...
Glomerular Apparatus

Glomerular Apparatus

General Considerations All nephrons have one glomerular apparatus each. Each glomerular apparatus is a critical contributor to the renal function. Here are the functions performed by the glomerular apparatus. Notice that the tubular secretion and reabsorption is not...
Introduction to the Urine Formation

Introduction to the Urine Formation

Urine is formed in the kidney’s nephrons by a combination of following three processes: Filtration Tubular Secretion Reabsorption Note: some books mention excretion and water conservation as processes as well. We feel that the excretion is not a process of urine...
Renal Physiology – General Concepts

Renal Physiology – General Concepts

Kidneys perform following categories of functions: Homeostasis Urine Formation Hormone Secretion Homeostasis Kidney play a critical role to maintain healthy serum, interstitial, and intracellular  environments. Here are the some of the homeostatic functions that...
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