Kidney Anatomy – General Features

Color

Kidney in the fresh state has reddish-brown.

Dimensions

  • 11 cm long
  • 6 cm wide
  • 3 cm thick

Weight

  • Males: 150 g
  • Females: 135 g

General Relations

  • Retroperitoneal organ
  • Lies on the ventral surface of the quadratus lumborum muscle.
  • Lateral to the psoas major, psoas minor, and the spinal column.
  • Middle parenchyma is called Medulla and the outer parenchyma Covering the medulla is called Cortex

Renal Capsules and Fasciae

True or renal capsule is a thin sheet of fascia that can be easily peeled in a healthy individual. In some pathologies this sheet can become scarred and firmly adherent to the kidney surface.

Hilum

A vertical cleft on the concave medial side of the kidney. From anterior to posterior hilum contains renal vein, renal artery, and renal pelvis. Renal hilum continues inwards to contain renal vessels, lymphatics, renal pelvis, major and minor calyces, nerve plexus, and some fat.

Right Kidney (1.5 cm lower than the left kidney)

  • Upper pole at T12.
  • Right kidney’s hilum is 5cm from the median plane and below the transpyloric plane.
  • Below the spinous process of the L1 vertebra.
  • Related to rib 12.

Structures anterior to the right kidney

  •     Right suprarenal gland
  •     Right colic flexure
  •     Small intestine
  •     Part of the descending duodenum
  •     Liver

Structures posterior to the right kidney

  •     12th rib
  •     Transverse process of L1 vertebra
  •     Diaphragm
  •     Psoas Major
  •     Quadratus Lumborum
  •     Tendon of Transverse Abdominis muscle

Left Kidney (1.5 cm higher than the right kidney)

  • Upper pole at T11
  • Hilum of the left kidney is 5cm from the median plane at the lower border of the spinous process of the L1 vertebra.
  • Transpyloric plane passes through the hilum of the left kidney and L1. (Remember L for Left).
  • Related to ribs 11 and 12

Structures anterior to the left kidney

  •     Left suprarenal gland
  •     Stomach
  •     Jejunum
  •     Left colic flexure
  •     Pancreas
  •     Spleen

Structures posterior to the left kidney

  •     11th and 12th ribs
  •     Transverse process of L1 vertebra
  •     Diaphragm
  •     Psoas Major
  •     Quadratus Lumborum
  •     Tendon of Transverse Abdominis muscle

Published by

Drbeen

Improving healthcare...one clear concept at a time!

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