Insult to liver on long run can cause fibrosis of the liver and formation of nodules ,which is termed as liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis is a chronic condition of the liver in which there is fibrosis and formation of nodules. The normal architecture of the liver gets distorted and patient presents with number of clinical … Continue reading LIVER CIRRHOSIS – PART I
Calorie counting is one of the best ways to lose weight, reduce the risk of heart disease, reduce the risk of stroke, control hypertension, and control diabetes mellitus. But, how many calories should you eat? Quick answer: number of calories needed for you are calculated using your healthy body weight, sex, genetics, age and your … Continue reading How Many Calories Should I Eat Daily?
Note: this article focuses on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a disease where glucose is unable to enter cells and help create energy packets called ATP. Think of ATP as tiny batteries used by the little machines working in our cells for various functions. In diabetes, glucose is available in the blood stream. Just … Continue reading Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Peak
Following 4 phases of heart failure must be in your mind when managing heart failure patients. Chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Advanced heart failure. General principles of treatment for heart failure Relieve symptoms. Improve functional status. Prevent (re)hospitalization. Prevent death. General … Continue reading Congestive Heart Failure (Part 3. Management)
Properties of Pulmonary Circuit The heart pumps a volume of blood into the lungs which after getting oxygenated is transported back to heart. This oxygenated blood is then pumped out of the heart and into the aorta and subsequently into the systemic circulation. As a consequence, at any given time the lungs (pulmonary vasculature) contain … Continue reading Pulmonary Circuit
Organization of Cardiovascular System The human heart has 4 chambers which are the two atria and the two ventricles. These 4 chambers are divided into 2 functional units referred to as the left heart and the right heart. These atria and ventricle are single functional unit, separated by the atrioventricular valves. These AV valves are … Continue reading General Principles of Hemodynamics