EKG – difference between MAT and PAT

MAT stands for multifocal atrial tachycardia. PAT stands for Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia. A student going through drbeen’s EKG interpretation lectuers asked us the difference between MAT (multifocal atrial tachycardia) and PAT (paroxysmal atrial tachycardia). Here is a quick summary of the differences:  PAT is usually an extra focus/reentrant circuit in the atria. It is similar … Continue reading EKG – difference between MAT and PAT


Insult to liver on long run can cause fibrosis of the liver and formation of nodules ,which is termed as liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis is a chronic condition of the liver in which there is fibrosis and formation of nodules. The normal architecture of the liver gets distorted and patient presents with number of clinical … Continue reading LIVER CIRRHOSIS – PART I

Congestive Heart Failure (Part 3. Management)

Following 4 phases of heart failure must be in your mind when managing heart failure patients. Chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Advanced heart failure. General principles of treatment for heart failure Relieve symptoms. Improve functional status. Prevent (re)hospitalization. Prevent death.   General … Continue reading Congestive Heart Failure (Part 3. Management)

Pulmonary Circuit

Properties of Pulmonary Circuit The heart pumps a volume of blood into the lungs which after getting oxygenated is transported back to heart. This oxygenated blood is then pumped out of the heart and into the aorta and subsequently into the systemic circulation. As a consequence, at any given time the lungs (pulmonary vasculature) contain … Continue reading Pulmonary Circuit