LIVER CIRRHOSIS – PART I


Insult to liver on long run can cause fibrosis of the liver and formation of nodules ,which is termed as liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis is a chronic condition of the liver in which there is fibrosis and formation of nodules. The normal architecture of the liver gets distorted and patient presents with number of clinical … Continue reading LIVER CIRRHOSIS – PART I

Congestive Heart Failure (Part 3. Management)


Following 4 phases of heart failure must be in your mind when managing heart failure patients. Chronic┬áheart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Advanced heart failure. General principles of treatment for heart failure Relieve symptoms. Improve functional status. Prevent (re)hospitalization. Prevent┬ádeath.   General … Continue reading Congestive Heart Failure (Part 3. Management)

Pulmonary Circuit


Properties of Pulmonary Circuit The heart pumps a volume of blood into the lungs which after getting oxygenated is transported back to heart. This oxygenated blood is then pumped out of the heart and into the aorta and subsequently into the systemic circulation. As a consequence, at any given time the lungs (pulmonary vasculature) contain … Continue reading Pulmonary Circuit

General Principles of Hemodynamics


Organization of Cardiovascular System The human heart has 4 chambers which are the two atria and the two ventricles. These 4 chambers are divided into 2 functional units referred to as the left heart and the right heart. These atria and ventricle are single functional unit, separated by the atrioventricular valves. These AV valves are … Continue reading General Principles of Hemodynamics